Having a pet may take a toll on your sleep, study suggests

Your beloved pet may be hurting your sleep, research published Thursday finds. 

Though pets can have many positive effects on health, pet ownership was linked with poorer sleep, according to the study published in the journal Human-Animal Interactions.

The researchers looked at data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which asks questions on a variety of health topics. They adjusted for factors that could affect sleep, including race and income, as well as age, gender and BMI, and focused on whether a person had a sleep disorder and whether a person had a cat or a dog. 

Sleep quality was measured by looking at reported bouts of snoring or snorting at night; being diagnosed with a sleep disorder; having trouble sleeping or falling asleep; waking up during the night; waking up too early; feeling unrested; not getting enough sleep; needing medication to sleep; or having leg jerks or cramps. Taking longer than 15 minutes to fall asleep and regularly getting less than six hours of sleep were also indicators of poor sleep.

The findings showed that having a dog was associated with a greater chance of having a sleep disorder and overall having trouble sleeping, while having a cat was associated with having a higher chance of leg jerks in the night. 

The study was observational, meaning the researchers could not say for certain the pets caused poor sleep, but the results were consistent with previous studies that found that pet ownership negatively affected sleep quality. 

Lead study author Lauren Wisnieski, an assistant professor of public health and research at Lincoln Memorial University in Tennessee, noted that the study didn’t look at where people’s pets slept. For example, is a dog taking up all the space on the bed? Is a cat curling up right next to the pet owner’s head?

That would be a good direction for future studies, she said, “to ask owners more about where their pets sleep and how those pets are disrupting their sleep.”

How to get better sleep with a pet

Lieve van Egmond's cat.
Lieve van Egmond noticed her sleep changed when she got her cat, Bacco.Courtesy Lieve van Egmond

Lieve van Egmond, a sleep researcher at the Uppsala Sleep Science Laboratory in Sweden, noticed that her sleep changed when she got her kitten, Bacco. She looked into the relationship between pets and sleep quality while earning her doctorate. She was not involved with the new study, but did lead a separate study that also used self-reported data to examine how pets may affect sleep. 

In that study, published in 2021, van Egmond and her team  found that having a cat was associated with a shorter night’s sleep, but having a dog was not linked to changes in sleep. Still, she noted that more research would need to be done to establish whether the findings were a coincidence, or if pets were truly causing sleep issues. 

She said the association found in the new study likely has more to do with owning a pet — and the many different factors tied to that unique cat or dog — rather than where those pets sleep. 

Emma Ken
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